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Work on active parts must be carried out only after first ensuring that they are dead. This is to be achieved by: 1.

Insulated man baskets and platforms are to be preferred over ladders and pole climbers for work at a height. However, the risk of electrical accidents electric shocks and the risk of falling from a height as a result of an electric shock are always present.

This work is special work, for which the employer must ensure that: work on live active parts is carried out only in accordance with tried and tested safe working methods; work is carried out only by skilled electrical workers trained for this type of work, who have mastered the implementation of safety measures; appropriate equipment and tools for the working process and voltage are used; special technical, organisational and individual safety measures are taken to ensure protection against electrical hazards.

Section 4. It must be ensured that the scaffolding is stable. Scaffolding decks must be assembled in such a way that their components cannot move in normal use.

The person supervising and the workers concerned must have available the assembly and dismantling plan referred to in section 4.

In other words, it provides a safe workstation for all work to be performed at a height, as well as safe access. They can be either fixed or mobile.

Before choosing scaffolding, you need to clearly specify your needs, for example: For which type of work is the scaffold going to be used?

Which types of work are going to take place simultaneously on the scaffold? What is the total height required? What are the geometric features to be taken into account?

How will workers access the various levels with loads? What type of anchoring can be used? Must the scaffolding be compatible with other structures or equipment goods lifts, winches, etc.

What are the possible means of attachment and levelling? After choosing the scaffolding, and if the calculation sheet for it is not available or does not cover the planned structural configurations, a strength and stability calculation must be carried out, except where the scaffolding is assembled in accordance with a generally recognised standard configuration.

Additional measures must be taken in order to avoid this risk to workers. For work on scaffolding near overhead power lines or electricity installations, minimum safety distances must also be respected and measures must be taken to protect workers against possible risks of electrocution as a result of direct contact or electrostatic charge due to the electromagnetic field.

For more information, see section 3. Among other things, it is necessary to ensure that the ground is stable enough to prevent the scaffolding collapsing.

The base of the scaffolding should never be allowed to rest on hollow building materials bricks, concrete blocks or wooden parts subjected to bending forces if their strength has not been calculated.

These precautions must be indicated in the documentation on the risk assessment and may include one or more of the following measures: rerouting the lines having the power turned off installing barriers or insulation between scaffold and lines.

Organise unloading and storage to ensure satisfactory preservation of the elements load-bearing capacity, functionality, etc.

Check the condition of each scaffolding element before it is used, and replace any that are defective. Check the quality of the walls or other surfaces that will be used for anchoring the scaffolding.

Check the quality of welds, the geometry of the parts and any rusty areas. Check the condition of metal or wooden boards, footings or other elements that are of fundamental importance for scaffolding stability.

Protect parts from contamination and bad weather if this has not already been done. In the case of work in or near electricity installations power lines, substations, etc.

Equipment for temporary working at heights Earthing is also recommended: for scaffolds located near overhead lines or an electricity installation as mentioned above for scaffolds on the roofs of high-rise buildings.

The weight of pallets of construction materials such as concrete blocks and bricks may exceed the nominal loads and forces recommended by scaffolding manufacturers.

Such systems must take account of access to scaffolding and there should be no obstructions, so that workers can be evacuated in an emergency.

Properly constructed loading bays can prevent the scaffolds from being overloaded and hence exceeding their load-bearing capacity.

Protection: Loading bays with unguarded openings or edges must not be used; guard rails must be installed before use.

The person supervising and the workers concerned must have available the assembly and dismantling plan referred to in 4. This will generally involve using fall arrestor equipment.

The size, shape and layout of scaffolding flooring must be appropriate for the type of work to be performed and suitable for the loads to be borne, and allow safe work and movement.

The scaffolding flooring must be assembled in such a way that its components cannot move in the context of normal use. There should be no dangerous gaps between the flooring components and vertical fixtures for collective protection against falling.

SAFE WAY TO ERECT A SCAFFOLD During assembly: workers should use collective protection equipment; before gaining access to the upper floor, the worker performing assembly should put in place a guard rail from the protected lower floor; scaffolding that allows this method of placing guard rails should be used; access to each upper level, during assembly, should be via ladders or stairways set up as the work progresses; where the scaffold does not provide intrinsic safety e.

The anchoring points to which the anchors are attached are usually: expansion bolts; a tie; a cast in tie. Guard rails, support bars, rainwater downpipes, roof gutters, etc.

Where practicable, the gap between the scaffold and the building should be closed by using cantilever platform brackets at platform level.

If such brackets cannot be used, collective protection equipment on both sides of the scaffold is recommended. Tie B.

Tie tube C. Coupler C. Coupler D. Butt tube E. Coupler TIE C. Coupler Butt tube Packing or wedge Cast-in tie C.

A safe means of access to the scaffold must be provided. The instructions of the scaffolding manufacturer should be consulted to identify the points where wind bracing is required.

Bracing should extend without breaks to the bottom of the scaffolding. Access to platforms must be designed or arranged so that it is possible to evacuate a worker safely in the event of an accident.

Access should be through a hatch with a hinged cover or through a stair tower. If an elevator or another means of lifting is used to access the scaffold, it must be designed to carry workers and not just materials.

Sheeting may consist, for example, of wire netting, corrugated sheets, nets, plastic elements or wooden panels. It should be fixed securely to prevent materials from passing through it.

It should be inspected regularly, particularly after strong winds. Sheeting will significantly increase the wind loading on a scaffold and on the ties and tie couplers, so, when it is used, checks should be carried out on all scaffolding elements, in particular the general structure, anchor bolts, wind bracing and foundations.

They also help prevent persons falling between the guard rail and platform. Toe-boards and end toe-boards must be fixed to all work platforms.

Toe-boards must be of a sufficient height and must be securely fixed to the standards. Awnings are often the most suitable way of protecting pedestrian traffic areas and access points to the structure.

Awnings normally consist of an inclined support extending from the building and covered in decking.

Measures must be taken to prevent materials falling from working platforms. Areas located above entrances to the site or above where persons are working represent an additional risk and are most in need of protection.

Platforms boards and decking must be maintained in good condition. Working platforms must be wide enough and sufficiently boarded to allow safe passage of persons along them.

PRIOR 4. TO USE Prior to use, check that: an assembly, operation and dismantling plan has been prepared, in line with the complexity of the scaffolding chosen, and assembly has been supervised by a competent person and by workers who have received adequate training; the worker in charge of scaffolding assembly and the user, where they are different people or different companies where assembly is subcontracted , should both be satisfied that the scaffolding will provide a safe work platform and safely withstand the loads exerted during its use; the areas of the scaffold which have been handed over are clearly identified; the maximum capacity of the loading bays and work platforms is known; the entire area of the scaffold is inspected before it is taken into use an inspection check-list may be used ; an inspection report is drawn up and a copy retained on site; the responsibilities for maintaining, altering and inspecting the scaffold are clearly laid down.

Equipment for temporary working at heights montage - Q7:Mise en page 1 PART 2 Is there an assembly, operation and dismantling plan drawn up by a competent person?

Are scaffolds erected, modified and dismantled by competent workers? Are all standards provided with base plates and, where necessary, timber sole plates?

Are all standards, ledgers, braces and struts in position? Is the scaffold secured to the building or structure in enough places to prevent collapse?

Are there double guard rails and toe-boards or other suitable protection at every edge, to prevent falling? Are there toe-boards to prevent materials falling from scaffolds?

Are work platforms fully boarded and are the boards installed so as to prevent falling over, stumbling or slipping? Are there effective barriers or warning notices signposting in place to stop workers using an incomplete scaffold, e.

These types of scaffolds may be chosen only after undertaking a risk assessment taking account of: the work to be performed; the location of the work equipment mobile scaffold ; the maximum load; the height at which work is to be carried out; dimensional constraints; the external work environment electric power lines, other work in progress, etc.

Supply systems must not destabilise the mobile scaffold, with particular attention to the risk of fitting lifting devices e. Ensure its stability.

Check that tarpaulins and nets can withstand the stresses exerted. Use only non-flammable materials for suspension.

Prevent the risk of the scaffold swaying in all directions. Assemble the flooring in such a way that the surface is level; install edge protection devices in all cases.

Provide and signpost safe access routes to workplaces on suspended scaffolding, to avoid the risks of falling from a height.

Portable ladders must rest on a stable, strong, suitably-sized, immobile footing so that the rungs remain horizontal.

Suspended ladders must be attached in a secure manner and, with the exception of rope ladders, so that they cannot be displaced and so that swinging is prevented.

Ladders used for access must be long enough to protrude sufficiently beyond the access platform, unless other measures have been taken to ensure a firm handhold.

Following a risk assessment, the use of ladders, should be limited to situations where the use of safer systems is not justified for the following reasons: minimal risk; short period of use; technical conditions on the construction site which the employer cannot change.

CAUTION: Ladders may be used as workstations for work at a height only where the use of other, safer work equipment is not justified because of the low level of risk, and either the short duration of use or existing features on site that the employer cannot alter.

However: when using a ladder, the working width is rather limited; the time involved moving and setting up ladders is often underestimated when planning work; the working position on a ladder is often uncomfortable ergonomic issues include the need to stretch sideways, work above shoulder height and stand on narrow rungs for a long time , which can cause musculoskeletal disorders.

Ladders are used: as a means of access to bridge height differences; as workplaces for short jobs. Are the ladders in sound condition? Will they rest against a solid surface and not on fragile or unstable materials?

Will they be secured to prevent them slipping sideways or outwards? If not, are there other hand-holds available? Will they be positioned so that workers will not have to overreach?

Ensure that there is sufficient free space around the ladder to enable workers to climb up and down in complete safety, without any risk of tripping.

If you have to place a ladder in a passageway, on the public highway, etc. The type of ladder should be chosen after a risk assessment taking into account factors such as: the height and circumstances in which the work is to be performed; the working load to be allowed for; ergonomic constraints during use; the presence of electric power lines or other installations liable to cause risks of electrocution by contact or through induction of an electromagnetic field static charges.

For more information on electricity risks, see section 3. The advantages and disadvantages of the various types of ladder should also be considered.

If a ladder is placed on sandy ground, fine gravel, etc. The ladder must never rest on a single stile. It is strongly recommended that a single ladder or a manually or mechanically operated extension ladder should not be used on slippery surfaces.

It is better to choose a stepladder to avoid the risk of slipping. Place the ladder flat on the ground and make sure that its feet are properly secured so as not to slide away during lifting.

Raise the upper part of the ladder. Continue to raise the ladder above your head. Move forward slowly below the ladder, pushing one rung after another upward to raise it vertically.

This protection may take the form of: a movable base with rubber suction cups or covers; external rubber feet for the stiles; internal rubber feet for the stiles; a foot with steel tip; a stabiliser enlarging the base ; any another element capable of ensuring satisfactory stability of the ladder and preventing it from slipping during use.

Provide workers with clear instructions on how to use a stepladder. Only stepladders fitted with robust locking devices should be used.

Before each use, check that the stepladder is in sound condition damaged stepladders should not be used. Position the stepladder correctly with the locking devices, and secure it so that it cannot slide or tilt.

In order to use this type of ladder on stairs or a sloping surface, use sliding extensions and fix them to at least two points on each side.

Erect the stepladder properly and do not climb onto the last step unless there is a safety bridge or a securing device.

In places where there is traffic, secure by means of barriers. Always indicate the presence of workers in an appropriate manner.

CAUTION: do not move from a stepladder to another workstation or walkway; stepladders must not be used as single ladders.

Before each use, check that the ladder is in sound condition. Do not use damaged ladders. Install the ladder securely, and fasten it so that it cannot slip or rock.

Do not climb on this type of ladder unless the locking device is properly extended. Do not extend the ladder above the height stipulated by the manufacturer or national legislation.

If, after assessing the risks, fixed ladders with safety hoops are to be used, check that: these ladders are corrosion-resistant; an appropriate protective device is installed near the access routes to workplaces at a height hooped ladders, bars so that workers can climb up and down safely and avoid additional risks of falling from a height; protective rails are installed above the highest workplace; ladders have rest landings at specified intervals; the workers concerned use appropriate personal protective equipment, e.

In places where there is traffic, install appropriate signs and secure the work area with barriers. Place it only on firm ground. Lighten the loads on the wheels and axles by means of supporting bars or the telescopic arm.

Comply with safety distances from overhead power lines, and take appropriate measures to prevent risks of electrocution.

Climb a telescopic ladder only when it is placed in complete safety and the locking system is in position.

Protect workers against falls. Roof ladders used by chimney sweeps should be firmly secured to the roof.

All repairs must be entrusted to a specialist or preferably the manufacturer. Also: metal parts should be protected against corrosion; metal ladders not made of aluminium or stainless steel should be treated with a rustproof paint or other product.

Wooden ladders must not be painted, because the paint would make it impossible to see any cracks or other defects in the wood.

They should nevertheless be protected against woodworm, rot, mould, etc. All surfaces of wooden parts should therefore be treated with a protective coating that is neither opaque nor impermeable e.

They are often used in storage premises and warehouses. During work the wheels must be locked in order to prevent accidental movement.

In addition: the condition of the platform and the ground must be checked before use, to prevent unforeseen slipping or movements; damaged individual mobile platforms should never be used; an individual mobile platform should not be used by more than one person at once; only platforms suited to the working conditions should be used.

If the ground is loose, soft or sloping, the stability of the platform must be ensured by placing plates under the feet.

Where the guard rails are removed for transport, they must be replaced before further use. It is important to ensure that the stabilisers are all properly positioned before starting work.

Workers should avoid leaning over too far during work and should leave the platform before moving it.

Lightweight individual mobile platforms are more ergonomic and safer than single ladders or stepladders.

Last paragraph of the Annex, section 4. It is applicable to the use of ropes for access to workplaces at a height, such as buildings, other structures or natural features.

It applies to situations where ropes are used as the primary means of access, exit or support and as the primary means of protection against a fall.

Given the special nature of this work equipment, the employer should ensure that the workers concerned are adequately informed and trained.

Statutory requirements apply, and employers are advised to take account of the capabilities of workers from the point of view of health and safety.

Such equipment may be chosen: where it is not physically possible to set up and use scaffolding; where it is not physically possible to set up and use a safe work platform; where it is not physically possible to set up and use another type of equipment for work at a height; where the nature of the site or duration of the work makes it impossible to provide and use the types of equipment mentioned above; 4.

HOW TO USE ROPES When using rope access, check that: the working zone is suitably marked; an appropriate harness is used safety harness ; the safety line is strong enough to withstand foreseeable forces, even in abnormal situations, e.

In rope access and where a worker is being moved or suspended, at least two independently anchored ropes must be used: one primarily as a means of access, exit and support work rope ; the other for additional safety security rope.

It is essential that all rope access equipment is given a pre-use visual and tactile inspection, by a competent person, before each use to ensure that it is in a safe condition and operates correctly.

Advice should be obtained from the manufacturer on how to do this and this advice should be strictly followed.

Formal inspection procedures should be put in place to ensure that rope access equipment is given a detailed inspection by a competent person before first use and at intervals not exceeding six months, and after circumstances liable to jeopardise safety have occurred.

Where rope access equipment is used in arduous conditions, it is recommended that interim inspections are carried out over and above the pre-use checks, and detailed inspections at intervals determined by risk assessments are carried out at the beginning and during the work.

Both the detailed and interim inspections should be recorded. Any item of rope access equipment showing any defect should be withdrawn from service.

Special attention should be given to textiles: contact with chemicals should be avoided, since chemical deterioration is difficult to detect: check for chemical damage, e.

Higher temperatures may cause textile characteristics to change. UV light accelerates ageing and correspondingly reduces the strength of textile materials.

Records listing all the items of rope access equipment issued should be kept. Records should include the lifespan and obsolescence date where provided by the manufacturer.

Sometimes disinfection may be necessary e. STORAGE After any necessary cleaning and drying, equipment should be stored unpacked in a cool, dry, dark place in a chemically neutral environment away from excessive heat or heat sources, high humidity, sharp edges, corrosive or other possible causes of damage.

Equipment should not be stored wet. METALS Special attention should be given to metal components: checks should be made for wear, cracks, deformation, corrosion or other damage; checks should be made for chemical contamination as some chemical products can cause excessive corrosion; metal components should be kept clean, and lubricated where necessary; metal components should only be cleaned by immersing in clean hot water, which may contain detergent or soap, for a few minutes; metal components used in a marine environment should be cleaned by prolonged immersion in clean cold water.

HELMETS Special attention should be given to helmets: the shells of helmets should be checked for cracks, deformation, heavy abrasion, scoring or other damage; chin straps and cradles should be checked including any fastening or adjustment.

Before choosing a MEWP platform, the following questions have to be considered: What is the necessary lifting height?

What is the height difference between the place of work and the surface supporting the device?

What are the characteristics of the supporting surface nature, condition, slope and cant, obstacles, strength, etc.

How many workers are required on board? What are the weights and sizes of parts and equipment to be lifted or taken on board?

Wedge the MEWP if it is used at a fixed location. In such cases and if the ground strength so requires , use intermediate support plates for the stabilisers.

Check the route before moving a MEWP for obstacles, irregularities, etc. Where there is road traffic, secure the location underneath the work platform if there is a risk of collision with vehicles.

Also use appropriate signs. Comply strictly with the recommendations in the operating instructions concerning the stability of the MEWP and the maximum wind speed.

Observe a safety distance from overhead power lines and other electricity installations to avoid the risk of electrocution.

Organise work so that in the event of an accident or emergency a second worker can always use the emergency controls. MEWP It is of prime importance to comply with the conditions of use specified by the manufacturer and observe the essential requirements for health and safety at work, in particular: the limits set to ensure the stability of the work equipment; the maximum wind speed.

When using a MEWP at a fixed location, it must be wedged and intermediate support plates used for the stabilisers depending on the solidity of the ground.

Testing, checking of fitness for use, and routine maintenance and inspections are subjects that are too complex to be dealt with in a few words in a guide such as this.

It is recommended that they be carried out at an approved workshop or by the supplier or manufacturer. In all cases, the regulations and standards applicable in the country of use must be complied with.

WHAT Before using a mast climber: make sure that it has been installed and checked by a competent person; make sure that nothing has changed since that check surroundings, anchoring, securing, cables, incidents, etc.

Mast climbers may be used for bricklaying, replacement of windows, etc. The platform must be accompanied by a declaration of conformity or a certificate if the equipment is hired or bought as second-hand equipment.

Always follow the instructions provided by the supplier. A suspended platform accompanied by a declaration of conformity or a certificate if the equipment is hired must therefore be chosen.

Check that: the electrical installation is correct and measures against the risk of electrocution have been taken. Also make sure that each of the winches can be controlled: simultaneously; by controls that immediately stop any movement if no one is at them; by controls that can be locked in stop position and are fitted with an emergency stop.

USING If such equipment is chosen: only those workers who are duly trained and have received written instructions should be allowed to use it; on assembly, ensure that suspended platforms are stable and the operating instructions are followed; rails should be installed all around the platforms or cradles to prevent falls; two cables should be used for each attachment point: a load-bearing cable and a safety cable; lifting should be synchronised, keeping the work platform horizontal and the cables vertical; an automatic device should stop hoisting in the event of slanting; personal protective equipment PPE against falling from a height should be used; the functions and condition of suspended platforms should be checked before starting work especially PPE or other additional measures to eliminate or minimise any risk of falling.

A suspended cradle must in all cases be firmly attached to the building. Equipment for temporary working at heights montage - Q7:Mise en page 1 Also: Ensure that the cradle is working properly before each use.

Authorise only duly trained workers to use a cradle; they must comply with the instructions for use. Install anti-fall protection systems on paths and points of access to the cradle.

Require workers in non-guided cradles to wear a safety harness. The employer should obtain information on weather conditions wind, temperature, ice, risk of frost, rain, etc.

Suspended platforms, which require the use of cables, allow access to workplaces at a height and positioning relative to such workplaces.

Collective protection of this type should be preferred to other equipment, in order to avoid any risk of falling.

Guard rail systems can be: in three separate parts, consisting of a rigid and resistant top and middle rail and a rigid baseboard, or integral systems consisting of protective screens, solid planks or three-part lateral protection systems with safety nets, guards and equivalent or similar.

Auxiliary and additional protective equipment USING They can catch workers who skid or slide when working on inclined surfaces.

They take the form of closed protective partitions, equipped with nets, screens or solid plates. For the use of edge protection devices on sloping roofs, the following aspects must be taken into account: the types of roof where the slope allows installation of such devices are limited; the surfaces with the greatest risk of slipping are determined by the slope of the roof or the inclined surface; the edge protection devices must extend beyond the work area to be secured.

When there is a risk of falling, lateral protection devices or fixed barriers to prevent workers from falling must be installed on: stairways without stair rails, landings, openings left in walls; workplaces and traffic lanes; openings left in floors, ceilings and roofs.

Lateral protection should be installed in the immediate vicinity of places where workers could fall.

It should consist of stair rails, intermediate uprights and possibly baseboards. In this case: install safety netting from work equipment such as a safe work platform, complying with safety instructions, so that workers are not exposed to an additional risk of falling; consult, comply with and ensure compliance with instructions for use on the construction site; attach safety netting only to solid construction elements.

When attaching nets, the employer should make sure that the following are not exceeded: the permissible heights of fall within the protected workplace and at the sides; the distances between the net attachment points; the maximum net strain values.

Use only safety nets that are compliant and not damaged, and check them before every use in accordance with national legislation and practice.

Allow for deformation of the safety net by the stresses exerted, to ensure that any falling worker will not hit the ground.

The definition excludes: a ordinary working clothes and uniforms not specifically designed to protect the safety and health of the worker; b equipment used by emergency and rescue services; c personal protective equipment worn or used by the military, the police and other public order agencies; d personal protective equipment for means of road transport; e sports equipment; f self-defence or deterrent equipment; g portable devices for detecting and signalling risks and nuisances.

Personal protective equipment must be used when the risks cannot be avoided or sufficiently limited by technical means of collective protection or by measures, methods or procedures of work organisation.

Personal protective equipment must comply with the relevant Community provisions on design and manufacture with respect to safety and health.

They can be used: under openings; under steep drops; under places with insecure footing. Nets should be fitted as close as possible under the structure.

Where the presence of more than one risk makes it necessary for a worker to wear simultaneously more than one item of personal protective equipment, such equipment must be compatible and continue to be effective against the risk or risks in question.

Personal protective equipment is, in principle, intended for personal use. If the circumstances require personal protective equipment to be worn by more than one person, appropriate measures must be taken to ensure that such use does not create any health or hygiene problem for the different users.

Personal protective equipment must be provided free of charge by the employer, who must ensure its good working order and satisfactory hygienic condition by means of the necessary maintenance, repair and replacements.

They also ensure safe rescue. PPE against falls from a height is used only when the use of collective protection equipment is technically impossible.

In all cases, it is necessary to make sure that there is an appropriate anchoring system for the secure attachment of PPE against falls from a height.

PPE against falls from a height can be used: when work has to be performed near the edges of flat roofs; on pylons; during erection work; in conjunction with climbing apparatus grabs.

Work for which PPE has to be worn should always be of short duration. However, Member States may require, in accordance with their national practice, the worker to contribute towards the cost of certain personal protective equipment in circumstances where its use is not exclusive to the workplace.

Auxiliary and additional protective equipment montage - Q7:Mise en page 1 The employer must first inform the worker of the risks against which the wearing of the personal protective equipment protects him.

The employer must arrange for training and, if appropriate, organise demonstrations in the wearing of personal protective equipment.

Personal protective equipment may be used only for the purposes specified, except in specific and exceptional circumstances.

Ihre Spielregeln Ring Of Fire verklärten Salzburg und wurden gemeinsam mit Schilderungen von Reiseschriftstellern zur frühen Grundlage für den aufkommenden Fremdenverkehr. Es ist ein regnerischer und wolkenverhangener Tag in Salzburg. Verlag Anton Pustet, Salzburg Daneben sorgen Besuchermagneten wie die Festung Hohensalzburg rund 1,14 Mio. In: Salzburger Nachrichten. In der Altstadt befinden sich neben einigen gehobenen und bürgerlichen Restaurants auch zahlreiche Szenelokale und Bars just click for source jugendlichem Publikum, die sich besonders entlang der Salzachkais angesiedelt haben. Alte, später barockisierte Kirchen sind die Michaelskirchedie Imbergkirche und die Pfarrkirche Mülln. In der Mitte des Friedhofs befindet sich sein Mausoleum.

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